Gun Collecting: Tokarev’s TT-33 and Its Clones

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Russian TT-33 made in 1940, without safety and a Norinco Tokarev Model 213 pistol in 9mm.
Russian TT-33 made in 1940, without safety and a Norinco Tokarev Model 213 pistol in 9mm.

Fedor V. Tokarev, 1871-1968, was a Russian arms designer. His name is familiar to many American arms collectors. Among his designs were the SVT-40 self loading rifle and the TT-30 and TT-33 pistol. The pistol is the focus of this month’s Collectors Corner.

In 1930 the Soviet Revolutionary Military Council began looking for a replacement for the 1895 Nagant revolver. The new pistol was to chamber the newly adopted 7.62x25mm cartridge. That cartridge is dimensionally identical to the German 7.63 Mauser Broomhandle cartridge but was loaded to a higher pressure.

Tokarev, an official at the Tula arsenal, lead a group that submitted one of the designs tested. They obviously borrowed some features from the Colt 1911 design such as the method of locking the breech and use of the link to tilt the barrel up. Tokarev took a couple interesting turns. First, there is no safety. Another distinctive feature is the hammer-sear mechanism which can be removed from the frame as a complete unit. Finally, there are no screws used in the gun. The grips are held in place by internal catches. The Soviet Arms committee liked the design and designated it the Tula-Tokarev 1930 pistol or TT-30.

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The TT-30 was produced through 1936 with about 93,000 pistols being made. In 1933 two changes were made to the design which necessitated changing the name to TT-33. The changes were in the method the barrel locking lugs were machined and by simplifying frame design to reduce the number of parts needed. These changes did not get incorporated into the production line until 1936.

The TT-33 was produced through WWII and into the mid 1950’s. The design was unchanged except for some guns made during WWII that had wooden grips instead of the black bakelite grips with the CCCP Communist Star logo.

Russian Tokarev pistols are not uncommon sights in American collections. Many were imported in the pre-1968 years. Some were carried home by U.S. veterans of the Korean or Viet Nam war. The TT-33 design proved popular within the Communist world.

China adopted the Type 54 pistol in 1954. It was a direct copy of the Russian design. A Chinese made Type 54 will have the triangle arsenal mark indicating where it was made as well as Chinese characters with a year date and serial number. Another version commonly exported to third world nations will be marked M20 on top of the slide. These frequently turned up in Viet Nam.

In the late 1980’s Norinco began producing new Type 54 pistols for the North American market. The first ones were military issue guns with the added safety. Then they made new models including a convertible kit with 7.62×25 and 9mm barrels and magazines. Norinco also produced a 9mm Tokarev it called a model 213. It was made with standard eight round magazines. Some were made for Navy Arms that are called a TU-90. These have a wrap around grip like that found on the Hungarian Tokaygpt. There was also a wide grip model that used a 12 round magazine. Many thousands of Norinco Tokarevs were imported before the Clinton administration banned import of rifled firearms made by Norinco.

Hungary issued their home made TT-33 as a Model 48 in 7.62x25mm. These will have the Hungarian coat of arms molded in the grip. The Hungarian state arms company FEG (Fegyvergar) also produced a limited number of 9mm pistols intended for export to Egypt in the early 1950s. The deal fell through and the guns were sold on the international market as the Tokagypt. This was the first time the TT-33 was re-barreled to use the 9x19mm cartridge. The FEG built Tokagypt were built with a thumb safety and the grips are different in that they wrap around the back of the handle. Neither Hungarian made TT pistols have been imported to the U.S. in quantity.

North Korea manufactures the TT-33 as the Type 68. Very little information is available on the North Korean produced version. It is assumed to be identical to the Soviet model.

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Poland manufactured their TT model pistol at the famous Radom arsenal also known as factory 11. Many of these with an added safety have been imported recently.

Romania made the Tokarev pistol at Cugir, their military production facility. Their model designation for the pistol is TTC, Tula Tokarev Cugir.

Yugoslavia issued the Model 57 pistol in 7.62x25mm. These are similar to the TT-33 except that they use a nine-round magazine. Thus the Yugoslavian guns can’t use the other nations magazines. These have a Yugoslavian crest on top of the slide. The recently imported Yugoslavian guns have a thumb safety added to the left side. This is my favorite safety addition to the Tokarev design. Its operation is similar to the U.S. Model 1911. American Arms also imported some 9mm TT pistols from Yugoslavian arms maker Zastava in the 1990s. They are called an M88. These were made for the American market and also have a nine round magazine.

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5 thoughts on “Gun Collecting: Tokarev’s TT-33 and Its Clones

  1. doc_coffin

    Be careful, telling people that the Tokarev and Mauser cartridges are dimensionally identical can get someone HURT! The simple FACT is, they are NOT identical, dimensionally or otherwise!
    Being similar to one another, many authors assume this based on what they have read from other dubious sources. Just because something is published. it isn’t necessarily true.
    The Mauser and Tokarev cartridges have different brass lengths, the Mauser brass being approx. 20 thousandths longer.
    The neck of the Tokarev cartridge is also 5 thousandths shorter and the sholder length is also shorter by 20 thousandths. When the slide of the Tokarev closes on a Mauser round, the brass is thin enough to form to the Tokarev chamber. This means 25 thousandths of excess length of Mauser brass, when fired in a properly cut Tokarev chamber, may rip loose when the brass is ejected and foul the next round as it enters, with disasterous results. Using the Broomhandle standard load could also seat too far forward, pushing the bullet back into the case, or jam it into the rifling, raising initial pressures, although probably not over that of a stiff Tokarev load..
    Also, some early factory Mauser ammunition is loaded with .309 and .310 (and .311!) diameter bullets, and could raise chamber pressure in a .308/.309 dia. Tokarev to dangerous levels, here again courting disaster.

    Conversely, the shorter factory Tokarev cartridges vary widely in their power levels, depending on when and what they were loaded for.
    Also, please be aware that some of the older surplus ammo on the market was hot loaded for the PPSh 41 submachine gun, and may disassemble the Tokarev pistol in your hand when you pull the trigger if your pistol is not up to snuff.

    These measurements and statements are facts, measured by myself and most are verifiable by SAAMI standards, and can be looked up or measured for yourself easily.

    Please do your research before making flat statements like this in the future. I (and many others, I’m sure) would like to see factual data from sources like this, not comments based on prior supposition and heresay.

  2. Tribune6

    There was also a conversion kit made by Norinco with a new barrel, recoil spring and instructions for modifying feed rails for .38 Super.

    1. NICKKER

      the little 7.62×25 digests cheap corosive 1950′s ammo without a hitch.

      you can buy new ammo that is loaded a little hotter.

      i use this as a sometime carry gun. the best part of this pistol/caliber combo is the 7.62×25 will defeat level 3 body armor. it won’t expand but it will punch holes in kevlar all day long.

      wear hearing protection because this pup is LOUD!

      neat take off on the original john browning design.

      NICKKER

  3. hp-hobo

    Thanks for the article, it was very interesting. I recently purchased an M-57 in 95% condition for under $200. Once I got all the cosmoline off/out of it, it turned out to be a fantastic shooter and is now being used as a carry gun. Why would you want a 1911 when you can get two of these plus a case of ammo for the same price?

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