So, should you go AR-15 piston or not? That depends. One group who benefits greatly from a piston system is those who own suppressors. The delayed gas flow (that’s how a suppressor works: it delays the gas flow out the muzzle, to reduce noise) means more gas and gunk blown back into the receiver on a DI rifle. Depending on minor variables in each rifle, running with a “can” can mean a gun that looks like a 4th of July charcoal grill after a few magazines, or simply a more-difficult cleaning job after a day of shooting. An AR-15 piston system on a rifle with a suppressor (especially a piston system with an adjustable flow valve) can make shooting with a “can” a pleasant time.
Another group that finds favor with piston systems are those with SBRs. The short-barreled rifle crowd often finds that a short-barrel DI system is just too touchy, or in order to be reliable, has to run too violently. Let’s take a look at the math involved.
Our bullet screams past the gas port, and thus allows gas to flow into the system. The bullet continues onward, and the system remains sealed until the bullet leaves the muzzle. How long is that? The time period is called the “gas dwell time,” by the way. Well, on a twenty-inch rifle, we have a 55-grain FMJ bullet leaving the muzzle at some 3200 fps. That means that the distance from the gas port to the muzzle, some 6.5 inches, produces 0.00017seconds of sealed-bore gas dwell time. (Those who know their mathematics realize that it is not simple arithmetic, but a calculus application, but I’m fine with rounding the numbers for this demonstration.) So, .17 milliseconds of time, which is less than the duration of a typical camera flash at its peak.
On a CAR with a 16-inch barrel, that dwell time is .24milliseconds, an improvement, but from there it goes backwards. TheM4, with its 14.5-inch barrel, gives us .19 milliseconds, and an 11.5-inch SBR produces a miniscule .11-millisecond dwell time. To ensure that the short-barreled rifle works, you have to open the port to get more of the gas working for you.
AR-15 piston systems are much less touchy. You see, you can hammer the system with as much gas as you need, and use a built-in gas bleed, or a self-limiting piston, to control over-driving it. Use a piston system and the SBR becomes a far less touchy creature, working with a wider array of ammunition, bullet weights and loads, and doing so with greater reliability.
So, those of you with SBRs may find a piston system advantageous. The rest of us? Not so much.
Finally, cost. Part of the cost of an AR-15 piston system is the piston system itself and the R&D that went into developing it, as well as the tooling costs to fabricate the piston parts. However, a fondness for the good old days clouds the issue. There are still a number of shooters who remember fondly the $600 AR they bought “back when [fill in the blank].” Inflation aside, let’s look at the“$600 AR” they bought. It probably had plain plastic handguards, maybe the A2/M4 type, maybe not. They certainly weren’t railed, free-float hand guards. The stock was an A1, an A2, or an old-style CAR stock. Not one that holds batteries or offers a solid cheek weld.
The sights were either A1 or A2, no flattop, and no place to mount a scope except in the carry handle. Which sucked. And the barrel? Maybe it was a 1:12 twist “pencil” barrel, and maybe it was something heavier. But wasn’t the premium tube we now expect, in this age of the sub-MOA AR. In fact, it wasn’t a rifle many of today’s shooters would pay $600 for, and that is with less-valuable inflated dollars. Adjusted for inflation, that 1986 AR you paid $600 for would run you $1,186.54 in Obama dollars.
So, before you go grumbling about “how expensive ARs have gotten, “consider what it takes to upgrade the $600/$1187 AR with a new stock, railed hand guard, better barrel and flat-top upper. All of a sudden, an “expensive” AR doesn’t seem so bad, does it? Throw in an AR-15 piston system and they are almost reasonable.
So, go to a piston if you want. Stick with a direct impingement if you want. Add all the features you want or don’t want, but don’t grumble about the cost. For what we get today, the AR has never been a better deal.
Read More about AR-15 Pistons and Other Features
Patrick Sweeney is Gun Digest‘s resident AR-15 expert. Read all four of his books in the Gun Digest Book of the AR-15 Series Set. The set contains volumes one through four of Sweeney’s Gun Digest Book of the AR-15 at a much better price than if purchased separately.
Click here to get the Gun Digest Book of the AR-15 Series Set.
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About the Author: Patrick Sweeney is the author of many of Gun Digest books' best-selling titles, including Gun Digest Book of the 1911, Vols. I & II; Gun Digest Big Fat Book of the .45 ACP, Gun Digest Book of the AR-15, Gun Digest Book of the AK and SKS, Gun Digest Book of the Glock and Gunsmithing: Pistols and Revolvers, among other titles. A master gunsmith, Patrick is also Handguns Editor for Guns & Ammo magazine.
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